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The protein is a CXC chemokine receptor. CXCR-4 is an alpha- chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 ( SDF-1 also called CXCL12), a molecule endowed with potent chemotactic activity for lymphocytes. CXCR4 is one of several chemokine co-receptors that HIV can use to infect CD4+ T cells.What happens to the CXCR4 receptor after it is stimulated?
Once signaling is stimulated, the CXCR4 protein is removed from the cell membrane (internalized) and broken down so it can no longer activate the signaling pathways. The CXCR4 receptor is also involved in the movement (migration) of cells. Cells that have the CXCR4 protein in their membrane are attracted to SDF-1.What is the role of CXCR4 in the pathophysiology of gastric carcinoma?
CXCR4 expression in primary gastric carcinomas is associated with the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis and malignant ascites which contained high levels of CXCL12 ( Yasumoto et al., 2006 ). CXCR4 expression in primary gastric tumors was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis ( Ying, Xu, Zhang, Liu, & Zhu, 2012 ).What is the natural ligand for CXCR4?
The natural ligand for CXCR4 is the chemoattractant stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF1), which can block HIV infection of T cells. The X4 strains induce multinucleated syncytia in T cell lines like MT-2, and hence are called ‘syncytia-inducing (SI) viruses’.